Steel plates are flat structural steel elements with rectangular cross-sections that are used extensively in building and construction applications. They provide strength, durability, design flexibility and accelerated construction capabilities.
Steel plate sizes typically range from 5 mm to 100 mm thickness and 1.5 meters to 3 meters in width. Common steel grades are S235, S275, S355 and S460 which denote the yield strength in N/mm2. Higher strength plates allow for optimizing structural designs.
In building frameworks, steel plates are used for fabricating beams, columns, trusses, shafts and bracings. Steel beams constructed by welding individual steel plates provide greater strength than rolled steel sections. Built-up steel plates enable customized beam depths and lengths.
Floor systems utilize steel plate girders that offer higher load carrying capacity due to a greater cross-sectional area. This allows longer spans between columns for open interior spaces. Steel plates are combined with concrete slabs using shear studs or connectors to construct composite floors.
Load bearing walls in steel buildings use prefabricated steel plates. These are lighter and faster to erect compared to dense concrete or masonry walls. Exterior steel wall panels can be insulated and prefinished for aesthetics.
Steel plates are used extensively in industrial warehouses, factories and plants. They can create large column-free spaces up to 60 meters in width. Steel storage racks are fabricated from slotted steel plate side columns and bracings for structural stability.
Bridges utilize steel plate girders for achieving longer spans beyond rolled beam capacities. Orthotropic steel decks of the bridge are constructed from steel plate ribs welded to a steel plate deck. This provides greater rigidity and reduces self-weight.
In high-rise buildings, steel plate shear walls offer lateral stiffness to resist wind and seismic forces. They minimize structural displacements preventing damage to elevators and mechanical systems. Steel plates are also used for constructing shafts, stairwells and hoistways.
Water tanks, penstocks and silos are built from steel plates due to their structural stability, weather and corrosion resistance. Welded steel plates allow construction of liquid storage structures in any desired shape, diameter and capacity.
Steel plates provide benefits including durability, fast construction using bolted connections and flexibility in design. They have high strength-to-weight ratio leading to material efficiency in design. Quality-controlled steel plate provides consistent mechanical properties.
Fabrication is done by cutting steel plates using oxy-fuel, plasma or laser cutting. They are shaped into required forms by plate rolling, bending or pressing processes. Integration of modular steel plate elements via bolting creates rapid site erection.
Steel plates offer long lifespan with low maintenance needs. They have higher residual value than other building materials. Steel plates are fully recyclable which enhances sustainability. Industrial coatings provide corrosion protection alongside periodic inspections and maintenance.
In summary, steel plates offer versatile structural possibilities spanning buildings, bridges, storages, towers and industrial units. Scalability in dimensions, grades and treatments allows customized solutions. Steel plate construction provides accelerated fabrication, strength, durability and design flexibility.
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